Top 10 difficulties in implementing ERP in the hot

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Top 10 difficulties for internal combustion engine enterprises to implement ERP

so far, many domestic internal combustion engine enterprises have implemented ERP system. For example, Dongan power, Yunnei power and Weichai have implemented Oracle e-commerce suite, Dachai, chaochai and Yuchai have implemented SAP r/3 software, and many foreign-funded enterprises such as Cummins and platinum have implemented QAD mfg/pro software

from the implementation effect, most of the above enterprises have realized the basic concept of ERP - the unification of logistics, capital flow and information flow. However, compared with the advanced management modes in lean manufacturing and other industries, there is a certain gap. The author believes that the treatment of several difficulties in ERP implementation is one of the reasons for the unsatisfactory application effect of ERP system

1. The relationship between product configuration and sales order, production plan and product data management; In order to meet some national and industrial standards (such as Euro III standards), the internal combustion engine manufacturers will also make some improvements to the internal combustion engine structure. All these changes and improvements have gradually transformed the production of internal combustion engines from the previous mass production to the multi variety and small batch mode such as assembly to order and configure to order

for example, the diesel engine is a series product with many variants. The commonly encountered configurations include:

1 Oil pump. Mainly divided into domestic and imported; Although the prices of domestic oil pumps are similar, some enterprises distinguish them according to their main suppliers

2. Fuel injector. Mainly divided into domestic and imported; For domestic fuel injectors, although the prices are similar, some enterprises distinguish them according to the main suppliers

3. Supercharger. It is distinguished by import and domestic products

4. Start the machine. It is distinguished by import and domestic products

5. alternator. By power (different power, different planned price)

6 packing box. Distinguish between wood and iron, and iron packing cases are used for turnover. Wooden cases are charged directly to cost

mainstream ERP systems and PDM systems generally include the product configurator module. Some systems also support the so-called "rule-based" advanced product configurator module, which allows users to set the relationship between options themselves

during the implementation of ERP system, both the consultant and the enterprise project team are faced with the choice of whether to adopt this product configurator module with advanced concepts, and then how to affect the enterprise's sales order, planning, production and product data management business. This paper analyzes this in Table 1:

since most internal combustion engines adopt serial and modular design, it provides a good foundation for the ERP system to build and configure BOM. In addition, the general assembly workshop of internal combustion engine enterprises mostly adopts the production line mode according to the beat, and its general assembly manufacturing lead time is usually much lower than the customer's demand cycle. Using the configuration BOM at the general assembly level can directly transfer the customer's configuration requirements to the general assembly task, so that the sales order can directly guide production, which can greatly improve the responsiveness of production to the market and reduce the inventory of finished products

the author believes that for the ERP system of internal combustion engine enterprises, it is not a question of whether or not to implement the BOM configuration scheme, but how to implement the BOM configuration with a compound annual growth rate of only 4%

2. Implementation of customer schedule in the ERP system

the sales business types of internal combustion engine enterprises are usually divided into agreement sales, contract sales and sporadic non contract sales. For major customers, such as supporting plants and maintenance stations, the price, rebate, payment, etc. shall be determined according to the agreement signed at the beginning of the year, and the contract sales shall be signed according to the needs of customers each time. Sporadic sales without contract are cash and spot sales aimed at the needs of temporary customers

for agreement sales, the sales department generally reports the next month's purchasing plan of the key customer to the production planning department before the fixed date of each month, and reports the next week's detailed delivery plan of the key customer (generally the variety and quantity will be adjusted) to the production planning department at the end of each week

in the mainstream ERP system, a "release management" module has been developed specifically for the automotive industry: customer planning schedule, customer shipping schedule, and customer production sequence schedule. The customer planning schedule corresponds to the next month's purchasing plan of the key customer mentioned above, and the customer shipping schedule corresponds to the detailed shipping plan of the next week

for key customers, whether to adopt one or all of the above customer schedules completely depends on their own plan management level and schedule accuracy

3. Relationship between PDM, CAPP and ERP

the main function of product data management is to provide ERP software with m-bom, design change information (ECO), part version information, etc. PDM manufacturers have also developed some interface programs for this purpose

the main function of computer aided process planning is to formulate process route, machine hour quota, etc

for enterprises that have not yet implemented PDM and CAPP, you can manually enter m-bom and routing in ERP; For enterprises that have implemented PDM and CAPP, the data can be processed and sorted out, and then imported into ERP system with interface tools or interface programs; For enterprises preparing to implement PDM and CAPP, it is recommended to implement them together with ERP and jointly formulate data standards and transmission rules; For enterprises that have not yet implemented PDM and CAPP, it is recommended to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the project. After all, the data provided by PDM and CAPP can not fully meet the needs of ERP

it should be emphasized that the three systems have different application objects and are usually provided by different manufacturers. Therefore, the data required by the three systems are quite different, and it is impossible and unnecessary to maintain complete consistency among the three systems. For example, in CAPP system, there is usually only machine hour quota, while in ERP system, in addition to machine hour quota, non quota time such as waiting and handling between processes cannot be provided in CAPP should also be considered. Therefore, the ERP system is not only to borrow the data in PDM and CAPP, but also to change it according to the needs of the ERP system. 6. Cooler: and supplement

4. The relationship between the serial number of the engine and planning, production, delivery and after-sales service

just as the whole vehicle is tracked according to the identification code number (VIN), the engine is also a product tracked by the serial number. In relevant national regulations, the format of diesel engine serial number has corresponding regulations

in the actual production environment of internal combustion engines, the serial number of the main engine is often given in advance when the production plan is formulated or before the commencement of the first process. When assembling the engine cylinder block number, the assembly workshop prints the serial number on the cylinder block with a steel seal

generally, the ERP system only assigns the serial number of finished products when warehousing, which obviously does not meet the business needs of internal combustion engine enterprises. The mainstream ERP system solves this problem in some additional modules (such as WIP lot number tracking module, etc.), but requires detailed initial settings

through the integration of ERP system and bar code system, some enterprises have made beneficial exploration in the realization of host serial number tracking. The positioning of the bar code system is to collect the host and related parts number information in the production process to form the installation details; The positioning of ERP system is to realize the management of host serial number by associating workshop tasks with these business information

other enterprises adopt bar code technology to identify auto parts when implementing manufacturing execution system (MES) system, so as to facilitate job tracking and data collection of each station. ANSI VT terminal simulation and screen mapping are adopted to realize the seamless connection between industrial terminal and ERP system. The stability and reliability of the system are fully guaranteed. The industrial terminal is connected to ERP through interconnection to realize real-time data communication

finished products with "serial number" tracking can be easily checked in the system during delivery and after-sales service

5. Treatment of repetitive production and mixed flow production

with the restructuring of enterprises in recent years, some ring terminals of wire harnesses are hung on the pull table near the center of the pull plate. In order to improve their core competitiveness, internal combustion engine enterprises have adopted the development strategy of "stripping" and "strengthening" on the one hand. Some branches, such as supercharger branch, oil pump and nozzle branch and piston branch, have been stripped off to become suppliers. The main engine plant only retains the production of key parts such as cylinder block, crankshaft, camshaft, connecting rod, gear chamber, cylinder head and flywheel housing; The main engine assembly line has been technically updated, and there are rigid production lines with beat production characteristics and flexible production lines with mixed production characteristics everywhere

mainstream ERP systems generally include discrete job/work order module, repetitive module and flow production module. See the following figure for the characteristics and main applicable production types of the three modules:

repetitive manufacturing is used for a continuous or semi continuous assembly process after a predefined time interval. It is necessary to determine in advance which assembly work should be established on which production lines. It is possible to arrange an assembly work to last only a few hours or any day

in repetitive production, according to the frequency of variety change on the production line, it can be divided into two modes: General repetitive production and advanced repetitive production. Advanced repetitive production is a mode between general repetitive production and flow manufacturing, which is more popular in the application of ERP system for auto parts. The flexible production line represented by automobile assembly is mostly used in flow manufacturing

mixed model manufacturing is designed to support the internal mixed production of multiple products in a series on the same production line. At this time, it is possible to choose to closely coordinate production with customer needs. In order to prepare for mixed flow manufacturing, it is necessary to define production lines and production processes in the ERP system so that each production line can produce different products in the same series at a stable speed; Then it can automatically create a schedule that is suitable for the production line capacity directly according to the customer requirements

during the implementation of ERP system, the consultant and enterprise project team should select different production order forms according to different levels of enterprise m-bom, so as to maximize the compliance with the characteristics of enterprise production management

6. Relationship between MRP and Kanban

mrp calculates the material requirements of sub items based on forecasts or sales orders to drive replenishment. Kanban pull is to drive replenishment based on actual inventory consumption. Generally, MRP is called "push" and Kanban is called "pull"

mrp can be well combined with Kanban. That is, MRP is run at the level of material demand planning and daily production line scheduling, and Kanban is used at the level of workshop operation and material consumption. MRP can not only be combined with paper "static Kanban", but also use ERP system's own "electronic Kanban"

many internal combustion engine enterprises have made beneficial exploration on the combination of ERP system and Kanban pull. For example, the supplier schedule generated by MRP is used to guide the production and delivery of suppliers, and Kanban is used to replace MRP

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